Pavan DBA's Blog

The DBA Knowledge Store

About me

Hi Everyone,

This is Naga Pavan Kumar (people remember me as pavandba)

Being born and brought up in vijayawada as only son to my parents, I used to be very calm going boy at the start of every academic year and most craziest boy at the end.

After completing my X std education in T.K.S.V.Lions school (don’t ask for abbrevation of T.K.S.V, i forgot long back !!!), and XII std (Intermediate) in Vijaya Krishna Junior College, my father forced me to complete my Engg from Jerusalem college of Engg, Chennai so as to see how the world is…. ( I had not been to any place since my childhood and i realized that this is the reason in my Father’s thoughts)

2004, year which tagged a B.Tech (IT) degree to my hand and throwed me to the world of competetion and asked me to survive.

After a struggle for 1 yr, I am here as Oracle DBA with a minimal knowledge and experience. Daily I feel to dig lot of things in DBA.

This Blog is intended to share my minimum knowledge to others

I have been active EXPERT member in Oracle Forums. Right now, I am working as Operations Manager for Oracle DBA team  and as Database Architect in a MNC.

As I love Oracle DBA so much, same I love to watch Movies. Many stories builded from my mind, hope some day I will hold megafone.

I dedicate this blog to my mother VIJAYA LAKSHMI and father MURALI KRISHNA, who were always been there to build me as successful man.

Last but not least, I want to dedicate this page to my wife who have been always with me in understading my passion towards Oracle DBA.

About a year back, wonderful angel DHRUVI occupied our lives and now all the time is set for her to play with me. Still been trying to post new things I am learning

Here are some of my certifications

489 Responses to “About me”

  1. Harmeet Singh said

    Hello Pavan,

    I have not seen as many comments as I see here. I am a DBA, started career in Oracle and then due to migration had to switch to SQL Server. Now I am planning to move back to Oracle, suggest me a good site or Blog where I can refresh things again. Its been more than 2 years I am out of touch with Oracle.

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Harmeet, thanks for your words. for refreshing, i would say always it is best to read oracle documentation or read books which are available in google. also, there are plenty of videos available over youtube which gives knowledge on latest versions.

  2. Melinda Sosa said

    Hi Pavan,
    I am an accidental DBA with a modest, but constantly growing skillset. On several occasions I have searched the internet and other resources for days for solutions to various ora- tns- errors. The answers all seem the same, very general and superficial and did not solve my problems. On those occasions, I have eventually found myself on you site, where I find solutions that work. I appreciate your explanations, they are thoughtful and complete. I am making you my first resource!

  3. munir said

    hello sir
    I’am currently teaching oracle 11g administration in delhi,how can I get a full time job in database industry as a dba.Is there any job available for me,I’am a B.Tech in CS with good working knowledge in oracle

  4. Dinesh Chandra said

    Hi pawan,
    I am an Oracle DBA and want to join RAC course.
    Do you provide class room training ?
    If yes then please mail me on ”

  5. Ram said

    Hi sir,

    sir aap ki guidence chayie thie…sir mujhe oracle dba bna h..mujhe oracle ka kuch nhi ptha m first step kha s start kru.pls guide me

  6. oracle said

    I have a full database backup with archive log all till 17 May 2015 Now team want to restore the database with 13 May 2015 only with the help of 17 May 2015 full backup then how we can restore back date Pls guide.


  7. Amit Kumar Yadav said

    Hi Pavan ,

    Could you please help out for below queries .

    Difference Between OLAP & OLTP at hardware level ?
    How will come to know at schema level difference between OLAP & OLTP ?
    Do we have any Parameter which can be a differentiation for OLAP & OLTP ?
    Can we create OLTP & OLAP instance in same DB ?

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Amit,
      SGA and PGA memory allocations will be different for OLTP and OLAP. Hardware level there will not be much difference.
      at schema level, we cannot identify really but transactions wise, yes there will be. there is no such single parameter to know if it is OLTP or OLAP. if you can know what is the application functionality, then you can confirm on it.

      yes, we can create same db to act as both OLTP and OLAP.

  8. srinivas rajnikanth said

    hello sir currently am working as a web designer.but am intrested in oracle so wish to learn !are you offering placement also

  9. Prasad said

    hi pavan,

    this is prasad.i have completed MCA in 2004. but i am working as a DBA in non-IT organisation. i have no knowledge on DBA roles. so i need training on oracle DBA in vijayawada. kindly help us.

  10. chandan said

    can we configure/install oracle RAC in a company’s test environment for testing? if yes, does oracle charge for the this configuration/licensing. Appreciate your suggestion/s before making taking any decision.

  11. subhan said

    Hi Sir,

    My self I am Subhan Completed Btech In 2014 , Is it better to do Oracle DBA course as my side because as i am from 2014 batch..If i complete the oracle DBA course will be there any opportunities for me to get the job..
    waiting for your reply sir

    Advance thanks

  12. Satya said

    Hi Pavan,

    Appreciate for your time and response to our queries.

    I have not done any certifications yet! I am preparing for OCA 11g and searching for latest dumps of OCA 11g, But Oracle keeps changing the questions after every 2 months. So can you please suggest how can I get the latest dumps of OCA 11g. Please send the dumps to my mailid –

    Thanks in advance.


  13. Namrata said

    Hello Pavan,

    Hope you are doing fine. I have one query regarding Data Guard. Oracle version is:

    How can we sync our primary and standby database automatically?

    Thanks in advance


  14. Pavan Kumar said

    hi pavan i would like to know are you teaching now a days, if yes please please provide me the details so that i can join asap my mail id is

  15. srikanth said

    hi pavan sir

    i am srikanth i am just started my career with oracle dba what is most asked for oracle dba in real time how can i start with dba

  16. Hello ,

    My name is Nick. I am the Sr. IT Recruiter at Pull Skill Technologies Inc (Pull Skill). I have identified your resume online and thought you might be a good match for this requirement! If you are qualified, available, interested, or planning to make a change, please reply to me via email with your most current resume attached. Kindly include a daytime phone number where you can be reached.

    However, only you know if the position is the right position for you. Would you be kind enough to review the job description and let me know what you think?

    Phoenix, Arizona
    Duration- 6 month contract LONGTERM

    I need someone that has expert level experience with Oracle GoldenGate, Oracle data guard and Active Data guard, supporting local and geographically dispersed HA.

    · GoldenGate 11g and 12c.
    · Zero downtime upgrades and migrations
    · GDHA
    · OEM Monitoring
    · Veridata Expertise required.
    · Data Guard and Active Data Guard.
    · Homogeneous and heterogeneous replication strategies.
    · Architecture, Engineering and operations.

    On SITE, starting immediately.

    :: Thanks & Regards ::
    Nick Arthur | Sr. Talent Acquisition Specialist | Pull Skill Technologies Inc.
    Direct: 201.497.1010 X 106 | Fax: 201.641.0110
    New Jersey | Illinois | |

  17. Jayaraj said

    Hi Pavan,
    We have a project to setup 3 Node Oracle 11G R2 RAC on RHEL6.X and do a migration of the Databases from old RAC on 11G R1. Could you please direct me to any good consultant we can take up the project, we can offer a decent fee for the task.


  18. Simli said

    Hello Pavan sir,

    I have one query regarding DBA_REGISTRY. What to check in DBA_REGISTRY view?

    Any help will be highly appreciated.

    Thanks and regards


  19. Arun said

    Hai Pavan,

    Iam Arun kumar was completed in 2014. Now iam working in Software company in .NET technology. I like to study Oracle DBA. I doesn’t programming jobs. Oracle DBA have good future for me???

  20. Dhivagar said

    Hi Pavan,
    Im currently working as a Oracle Apps Developer
    Im interested to change my path to (Oracle Apps DBA)
    Whether this course will be very helpfull in future and can i know wat will be my package if i shifted to Oracle Apps DBA

  21. Amol said

    Hello Pavan,

    I have been searching for a while now, for 11gR2 RAC dumps..(OCE)..Can you please help me with the same..

  22. rajagopal said

    Hi Pavan,
    I am into testing field and want to move to oracle dba. can i shift to oracle dba as i was working daily on database as a database tester. i am having 6yrs experience in testing. Please reply at the earliest.

  23. Vijaya Kumar said

    Hi Pavan,

    Thanks to share all your experience to get exposure in dba for freshers also experienced persons. I have some queries regarding the database Performance. Please check the below issues. Give me the suggestions to get some clarification on the issues.

    1. which parameters have to increase for sga_max_size is too low error and why you are getting error?
    2. how will you take stackpack report and how to check the issues in that report and how to resolve the issues in that report?
    3. after the recovery complete using rman backup why you are getting system tablespace not exist error?
    4. if user say their query is taking more time to complete than before hw will u analyze and hw u will resolve the pbm ?
    5. how will you set recovery strategy for 24 hrs data loss if cleint asked ?
    6. how will you set recovery and redundancy for 24hrs data loss?

    It is little bit urgent pavan. please give the reasons and solutions for the above queries.

    Thanks in advance

  24. vamsi said

    Hi Pavan

    can you briefly share your upcoming batch schedule, Im looking for core+apps with RAC training. Also please share the syllabus and duration of training. please share fee details as well. here is my emal id

  25. uday said

    Hi Pavan,
    I am Udayteja. I got some doubt with RMAN>backup database plus archivelog;
    RMAN>backup database plus archivelog all; [ It’s not working why? what is the reason]. could u plz tell me this pavan.

  26. Ravi said

    Hi pavan,
    I am ravi. i got confusing with these 2 questions?

    1. When does the rowid will get changed?
    2. Does the rowid get changed after we perform ;alter table table_name shrink space compact?

    • Pavan DBA said

      1. when we use alter table move command or wantedly through application if we change rowid, then only it will change
      2. rowid will not change when we use shrink commands.

  27. Kishore Kolla said

    Hi Pavan,

    is there anyway to increase the size of Home Directory after installation of linux?

    while installing oracle showing required home directlry space not available……

  28. Sathish said

    Hi Pavan garu

    I am new to oracle dba can you please clear me the below questions

    1) What is the difference between Bitmap and btree index?
    2) What is the difference is between physically stand by and logically stand by?
    3) What is the difference between SGA Max size and SGA Target size?
    4) What is the use of gather stats?
    5) Why we put database in begin backup mode?
    6) How to change SGA size from OS level?

    please give me the answers to the above questions sir

    • Pavan DBA said

      hi sathish, infact for all ur q’s u can get answers from google. but i will try to give one line answers
      1. btree index should be created on high cardinality (no. of distinct values is called as cardinality) and bitmap index should be created on low cardinality columns. btree will store data in tree format and bitmap will store in table format
      2. in physical standby database will be in either mount/read-only state. in logical standby, database will be in open mode.
      3. sga_target will define what memory size oracle should consume from ram during db startup. sga_max_size will specify what max size it can use from ram.
      4. optimizer will generate correct and best execution plan if the stats of the table are upto date.
      5. to take backup. i had posted an article already in my blog. check that
      6. u need to change kernel parameter called shmmax.

  29. Kishore Kolla said

    Hi Pavan,

    when im running /.runinstaller

    “First result : All installer requirements met.
    Next result:
    Preparing to launch Oracle Universal Installer from /tmp/OraInstall2014-03-15_11-06-49PM. Please wait …[oracle@oraclehost database]$ Xlib: connection to “:0.0” refused by server
    Xlib: No protocol specified

    Exception in thread “main” java.lang.InternalError: Can’t connect to X11 window server using ‘:0’ as the value of the DISPLAY variable.”

    Pls help me in this scenario.

  30. pratheek said

    Hi Pavan Garu

    Due to some power fluctuation at client side the production database is down. the client wants to set the dataguard (physically standby) environment as a primary database.

    how we can do this. please give me the solution for this


  31. Ravi said

    Hi Pavan,
    I am Ravi i have done dba course in Kanna 6 months back. Recently I have one question in an interview which is,
    1. If the database size is small how do u migrate to other server?
    2. If the database size is huze how will do u migrate to other server? Plz help me how do we do that.

  32. kishore said

    Hi Pavan,

    I would like to know when is the next batch for oracle DBA classroom traning will going to start. please let me know then i can arrange myself to come to hyderabad as im from chennai.

  33. pratheek said

    Hi Pavan garu,

    i have one doubt, is there any possibilities to migrate data from 9i( to 11g( if possible please suggest me.


  34. Ashutosh Rathi said

    Hi Pavan,

    your blog gave lot of information about database. Even I want to build my career in database. I know SQL very well and started learning PLSQL, please suggest me what should I do after that to become a DBA.

    Thanks & Regards,

    Ashutosh Rathi

  35. siva said

    Hi Pavan sir,
    I am shiva, i am ur student. i have got one question in an interview which is, I have one primary and standby. one of the archive is deleted on primary and there is a gap between primary & standby how do u fill the gap between both? plz tell the in this situation what we willl do ?

  36. Arun said

    Hi pavan,

    your blog is really awesome and informative. I have suggested many of my friends who are DBA to instead of going to google they should look into blog for there answers. It is very informative and like a ocean. Really an amazing blog. Many congratulations.

    I have a query. Actually I am working a manual testing engg for last 4 yrs. Prior to that I have worked with BPO and KPO. can i change my line/profile ..i mean can i start my career as Oracle DBA?. Will i be taken as fresher? will age be an issue for campanies? do you take online classes for Oracle DBA beginners and what all prequistive is needed from my side. Looking forward for your reply. Thanks

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Arun, first of all thanks for your words about my blog. but, really this is not more than google. i am sharing very little knowledge i know.

      regarding your question, yes surely you can change your line to oracle dba. usually when you change your career path, they might treat you as a fresher in technical, but still process wise you are treated as experienced. also, if you can show the skill set in dba which an exp’d dba can perform, then usually companies don’t have option to reject. age will never be an issue for the companies.

      reg classes, yes i do take online classes. but as of now i am dealing with a classroom batch. once it is finished (expecting it to complete by march end), then only i can start online batch. usually sql basics and unix basic commands are the pre-requisite for learning dba. but we do teach them for first 15 days in our course itself.

  37. siva said

    Hi Pavan sir,
    I am siva. i have a small doubt which is, whenever we create a database using DBCA, the data block size is 8kb. After creating the database . 1. can we change 8kb to 16kb? how can we change?
    2. Is there any impact on that database?

  38. Ravi said

    Hi Pavan,

    Need small clarification.. I heard like Oracle on Windows/Linux/Solaris platforms.. which one we can choose for a better career perspective..

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Ravi, Oracle on Linux or Solaris is good. Very less databases exist on windows when compared to unix flavours

      • Ravi said

        Thanks Pavan. Please let me know if you are providing online training as I’m based out of Bangalore.
        Also, can you please clarify my concern : some of my DBA friends suggest me to learn SQL Server & mastering SQL/PL SQL will help me to work better as a successful DBA. Please let me know your point of view.

        Thanks again,

      • Pavan DBA said

        hi ravi, yes i do provide online training. for more details contact 040-40036087 / 8008500064.
        reg another question, sql server is a rdbms like oracle, so learning it will not help to become oracle dba (it helps when u want to be a multi skilled dba)

        sql is important, but pl/sql is not. though having pl/sql knowledge will be helpful(but not mandatory)

      • Ravi said

        Hi Pavan,

        I’m planning to learn pl/sql parallel to DBA course, though I’m from Non-IT and non program background.

        Does learning pl/sql requires good algorithmic skills / logic skills as other programs highly demands (like, sort,stack,arrays . .. etc)

        Thanks much in advance for your valuable suggestions.

        Thank You,

      • Pavan DBA said

        hi ravi, yes it is a programming language like c or java etc

  39. Shadab Nivekar said

    Hi Pavan,

    I am an Oracle DBA started my career into Oracle as working as a RAC DBA with no prior exp of handling databases oracle databases.
    Please answer my below queries :-

    1) How much SQL & PLSQL is required for a DBA,
    2) To do PT better is SQL & PLSQL is really required,
    3) Could you suggest any institute which conducts good training on SQL & PLSQL in Hyderabad,
    4) I have chosen my career as a RAC DBA & RAC PT expert,please tell me how should i prepare to become RAC & PT expert.


  40. siva said

    Hi pavan sir,
    i am new to u. i have seen ur complements its so nice. In my pc i have done Dataguard configuration. but archives are not tranfered to standby side what we will do? I have seen alertlogfile of primary but it doesn’t show anything at that time what we will do, to transfer archives from primary to standby?

    Could u plz tell for this situation

  41. uday said

    Hi pavan sir,

    I have got an interview question recentely from cts which is is in 11gR2 if we do not configure FAL_CLIENT & FAL_SERVER who is going to fill archives gap fill at standby?

    I said it is mandatory but he said FAL_CLIENT & FAL_SERVER Is optional in 11gR2 and 12c also for this what we need to tell for this sir? could u plz help me this answer

    I am waiting for ur best answer sir………

  42. Drona said

    Hi Pavan,

    It’s really awesome that you are responding to each and every comment. I would like to know a simple thing.

    Could you please tell me if I would like to practice Oracle DBA on my personal computer, what software do I need to install? I mean what applications are required? Thank you in advance.

  43. Pavan kumar said

    Hi brother,

    I have not done any certifications yet! I am preparing for OCA 11g and searching for latest dumps of OCA 11g, But Oracle keeps changing the questions after every 2 months. So can you please suggest how can I get the latest dumps of OCA 11g

  44. anilkumar said

    Hi Pavan sir,
    If sysdba is unable to connect to the database due to some reasons at that time what we will do the sysdba need to connect to the database?


    • Pavan DBA said

      hi anil, it depends on why sysdba was unable to connect. the only scenario I know is when the audit destination is full, then database will not allow sysdba also to connect. in this case u need to go to audit_file_dest location and clear some old audit files. problem will be resolved by that.

      if there is any other reason why sysdba is unable to connect, u can check in alert log for the error.

  45. anilkumar said

    Hi pavan sir, This is anil.

    I am getting the following error: ORA-00604:error occurred at recursive sql level 1. This error occurred when I was trying to connect to the database. user. What could be the reason for this and could u tell me the solution for this ORA-604.

    ORA-00604: error occurred at recursive SQL level string.

  46. Naresh said

    Hi pavan sir, this is Naresh

    When will u take the class for 12cinstallation and brief TOAD. one Week has completed. plz the the class for this 2 topics. we all waiting for ur class. Plz take class as soon as possible. already we informed to Receptionist also. we don’t whether she is convied or not.


  47. Tarun said


    DB Version instance Database) OS version: OEL

    When we need downtime?

    Thanks in advance

  48. Tarun said


    This is Tarun. i am new to Oracle database. I have one query regarding alert log file.

    Checking alert log file manually for errors is a time consuming process to read the file.
    How to see alert log file for errors?

    Any help will be highly appreciated.

    With Regards


    • Pavan DBA said

      if u r using unix flavoured OS, then u can use below command which will give all errors in single shot.

      cat alert_sid.log | grep ORA-

      if enterprise manager is configured in your env, then u can check in EM db console for only errors in alert log.

  49. Pratheek said

    Hi Pavan Garu

    This is Pratheek. I am new to Oracle Apps DBA. can you please suggest me which documents are very helpful for me. can you please let me know sir. I mean is there any specific website for that Docs. please suggest me

    Thank you

  50. narehs said

    Plz tell atleast this answer pavan sir, [ we are ur students ]

    what is the difference between MATERIALIZED VIEW & MV LOG? [ if we have any doubt then only we mail you sir ]


    • Pavan DBA said

      MV is a table to refresh the data in timely fashion from remote database. MV log helps in fast refresh of the data. for more, read this –

    • Eswar said

      materialized view is stored in data base. query out put stored in data base. if u perform any dml operation on matirialized view we need to refresh other wise dml changes are not effected.
      MV log is used for refresh mode Fast . if you want to refresh materialized view with refresh mode “fast” .we need to create materialized view log.this process is called incremental refresh.

    • hi Naresh,
      if we perform any dml operation on base table, it is not visible to the mv (materialized view) until we perform refresh operation. In normal refresh(complete refresh or default referesh) opertion new replica of data is stored as mv and older mv is destroyed. It is not effiecient as each time we execute refresh new mv data is created, thats y we use fast refresh. here in fast referesh if we execute any dml statement on base table then oracle db stores that changes in mv view log, and latter that log is used for refresh mv table based on base table. If we dnt have MV log then we need to reexecute the mv query to refresh mv, which will become complete refresh or default refresh…


  51. naresh said

    Hi pavan sir,
    What is the difference between SYS USER & SYSTEM USER? And what privileges will have SYS & SYSTEM ?could u plz explain indetails sir.

  52. Naresh said

    BATCH NO : 37

    1. If I am having 2 oracle versions like Oracle 10g and 11g. Then can I mention/set both the ORACLE_HOME path and ORACLE_SID name in the bash_profile? how it will work?

    2. There are 2 types of inventories which are LOCAL INVENTORY & GLOBAL INVENTORY what information contains local inventory & global inventory?

    Could u plz explain me

  53. nagesh said

    Dear Pavan,

    I need some information for Oracle database restore point,I am planing to release some critical objects in Oracle 11g database and before we have to set oracle restore point for flashback.Could please provide the information and how to use restore point if face any issues in activity.

    Thanks in advance,
    Best regards,

  54. Simli said

    Hello Pavan sir,

    I am a newbie to oracle. I have gone through the oracle 11g documentation. I am having few queries regarding Oracle software(11.2.02) installation on RHEL5.

    1. What are the things that one should check after the installation of an Oracle software?

    2.How to verify ran or not?

    Any help will be highly appreciated.

    Thanks and regards


  55. Rama said

    Hi Pavan,

    i m rama working as Jr oracle dba in Product based company(Bangalore). I know only core dba part. Now i planning to learn ASM,Dataguard,RAC..etc. So is there any fast track course.
    Thanks in advance,

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Rama, ASM, dataguard, cloning, upgrade etc topics are included in the DBA course itself where as RAC is a separate course.
      we don’t have any fast track batches for DBA, but if possible u can attend online batch. timings are 8:30 to 10 PM. Already a batch started last week and we are in installation phase.

      If you wish to attend only adv topics, you may need to wait for another 10-15 days.

      To know about RAC batch details, plz call to 040-40036087 / 8008500064

  56. Shuv said


    Why I have to put a “.”(dot) when executing oraenv?

  57. Binu said


    I am having few queries regarding oracle inventory.

    1)I am maintaining multiple oracle homes within a single server for different oracle versions(, & There is one Global inventory for all oracle homes. For some reason, the global inventory gets corrupted. Oracle provides us with a method to recreate the global inventory by using “oui –attachhome” option. My question is in order to update the inventory about the physical location of multiple oracle homes, do I need to run this command from every $ORACLE_HOME or a single oracle home will do?

    2) Global Inventory could be placed anywhere which can be determined from inventory_loc in oraInst.loc.Can we change the location of local inventory or does local inventory always reside inside $ORACLE_HOME?

    Thanks and Regards

    • Pavan DBA said

      1. yes from every oracle home
      2. it should be out of oracle_home. usually we place in the location which points in oraInst.loc. if u place in any other location, then u need to change the path in oraInst.loc file

      • Binu said

        Thanks for your reply.

        oraInst.loc file points to the the location of the global inventory ($ORACLE_BASE/oraInventory). We can change this location by configuring oraInst.loc file. Can we change the location of Local inventory($ORACLE_HOME/inventory)?

        Thanks and regards

      • Pavan DBA said

        yes u can. what ever location u feel correct, u can update it in that file

  58. Ankita said


    How listener will decide to start a dedicated server process or to handover dispatcher? DB Version and OS version RHEL5

    Any help will be highly appreciated.



    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Ankita,

      this we will be mentioning in tns entry. for example when look at below two tns entries (bold letters), first one is specified with dedicated connection (which is default) and second entry specifies shared connection



      • Ankita said

        Thanks pavan for your reply.

        1)It means Whether a connection gets a shared or a dedicated is determined by the client side. Am i correct in my understanding?

        2)If shared servers are configured, by default all connections will be entertained by shared server. In that case we still need (SERVER=shared) in tnsnames.ora file?


      • Pavan DBA said

        1. yes
        2. if we configure shared server at DB level, the connections will not use that directly until we specify this in tnsnames.ora file

  59. Pinaki said

    I assigned two IP’s to ethernet (eth0 & eth1), entered them in /etc/hosts with following entry: prodhost.prodomain prodhost prodhost.prodomain prodhost

    The listener PROD_LIST is defined in listener.ora using hostname

    (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL= TCP)(Host= prodhost)(Port= 1522))

    My question is Will the listener listen only on or on both and


    • Pavan DBA said

      even though i have never tested this before, but having knowledge of similar background on RAC, i say usually it will listen to eth0 network adapter i.e

  60. raj said

    Can you explain Golden Gate in Oracle DBA

  61. subhashini said

    hiiiiii pavan this is urs subhashini teacher (english) how r u ???
    wrkd in lions school 1twn vij

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Madam, its really great to meet you like this. got a surprise that you commented on my blog. I am doing fine teacher and hope you are also doing good. I am so so happy… will mail you personally.

  62. Namrata said

    Hello Pavan sir,

    I am new to the Oracle world. I’m new at administrating a database ( on RHEL5). I am having few queries regarding Listener. My questions are as follows:

    1)Is there any difference between setting “host=” and “host=” in listener.ora file?

    2) Which one is recommended to use host= or host=?

    I hope you answer me.

    Thanks and regards

  63. Ankita said


    What benefits are their using ASM over file system?

    Any help will be highly appreciated.



  64. Binu said


    I am having few queries regarding Patching.

    1) What is the drawback if we don’t upgrade to latest patchset (i.e. from to or

    2) Difference between Database Upgrade and Patchset Upgrade?

    Thanks and Regards

    • Pavan DBA said

      1. there is no drawback. basically applying patchset is to avoid any bugs hitting your database
      2. patchset upgrade involves database upgrade as version of the software changes.

  65. Eswar said

    Hi Pavan,

    I have doubt on carrer prospective.
    I am looking for abroad opertunities.
    I have experince in oralce developer(2 yrs).

    i want to change the plat form like oralce apps technical
    or oralce dba. whcih course is having more opertunities in abroad.

    Thanks in advance for giving reply.


  66. Binu said


    Hope you are doing fine.I have a couple of questions regarding Standby DB.

    1) Why is supplemental logging needed in Oracle Logical Standby DB?

    2) What is the exact relationship between LGWR and LNS?

    Thanks and regards

    • Pavan DBA said

      1. Supplemental logging must be enabled on the primary database to support a logical standby database. Because an Oracle Database only logs the columns that were modified, this is not always sufficient to uniquely identify the row that changed and additional (supplemental) information must be put into the stream of redo data. The supplemental information that is added to the redo data helps SQL Apply to correctly identify and maintain tables in the logical standby database.

      2. read this –

  67. Dinesh yadav said

    Dear Pavan,
    We are looking for a Oracle DBA cum developer. Who is interested to work at Tanzania and having some exposure in training. Kindly let me know in case you have any friend / known in your knowledge.

    Thanks & Regards,

  68. Somnath said

    Hello Pavan,

    I am very new to Data guard technology. I have few questions regarding Physical Standby DB.

    1)Do I need to left blank LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2 parameter on Standby Database init parameter?

    2) What impact does NOARCHIVELOG mode have on standby database?

    3) If the standby archive destination is full, what will happen? Will the standby DB freeze? or will oracle stop redo transport from primary to standby?

    With regards

    • Pavan DBA said

      1. You can leave that as blank, but if you do that, you cannot do switchover between primary and standby databases.

      2. you can have standby in NO ARCHIVELOG MODE, but again as i said above, during switchover it will create problem.

      3. yes. standby DB will freeze and even primary will stop redo transport also.

  69. Binu said


    1) What will happen if the size of the current standby Redo log on standby database doesn’t match the size of the online Redo Log file on the Primary database?

    2)How can I open the standby in read only mode if I have no online redo logs?

    • Pavan DBA said

      1. there will be no impact except on the performance. that too we can’t say until experience it. usually we expect standby to be replica of primary and that is why it is recommended to maintain same config even at hardware level.

      2. still you can open it in read only because online redologs are needed only for write purpose.

  70. Meraj Ahmed said

    Hello Sir
    Presently i’m doing ( frst year) , I m very interested in computers fields.
    my teachers even say DBA is a very good option .
    sir im i eligible to go for a DBA training?
    how can i start off? please help me

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Meraj, yes you will be eligible for DBA course. Please take training from any good institute on Oracle 11g DBA course. But as you are in first year only, i suggest you can do this in your last year of graduation

  71. reza said

    Suppose we need to run the following:

    run {
    set until scn ;
    duplicate target database to clone nofilenamecheck;

    In order to get the SCN, can we use “list backup of archivelog all” and “list backup” or anything else?

  72. Somnath said

    Can you tell me the difference between duplicating a database and restoring a database

    With regards

    • Pavan DBA said

      even though both do the same action (clone a database), the method used is different. in duplicating, we use rman’s duplicate database command to do that, where as in restoring database, we do complete database recovery including spfile. moreover, in duplicate u can use any name for auxiliary database, but when using restore database u need to use same name

  73. Hi..sir please help to me because i know sql/plsql ,but i don’t know oracle-dba and db2 and remaiming concepts ..please suggestion to me .
    i will start preparation ,please guidance for which concepts are first startl like (steps wise which one first first start)…
    please..please ..sir help to me

  74. Binu said


    I have 2 questions regarding RMAN Cloning.

    1)When RMAN duplicates the database does it create the tablespace sizes exactly the same or create what is actually being used in the tablespace?

    2)Why does everyone use RMAN DUPLICATE as the preferred method to create a duplicate database?

    Thanks and regards

  75. hi sir is there any vacancies for freshers dba can u inform me

  76. shaik munaf said

    This is munaf. Am new to RAC environment. When I configured pre-requisites for oracle 10g rac and run clufvy i got the below error .
    [oracle@rac1 cluvfy]$ ./ stage -pre crsinst -n rac1,rac2 -verbose

    Performing pre-checks for cluster services setup

    Checking node reachability…

    Check: Node reachability from node “rac1”
    Destination Node Reachable?
    ———————————— ————————
    rac2 yes
    rac1 yes
    Result: Node reachability check passed from node “rac1”.

    Checking user equivalence…

    Check: User equivalence for user “oracle”
    Node Name Comment
    ———————————— ————————
    rac2 passed
    rac1 passed
    Result: User equivalence check passed for user “oracle”.

    Checking administrative privileges…

    Check: Existence of user “oracle”
    Node Name User Exists Comment
    ———— ———————— ————————
    rac2 yes passed
    rac1 yes passed
    Result: User existence check passed for “oracle”.

    Check: Existence of group “oinstall”
    Node Name Status Group ID
    ———— ———————— ————————
    rac2 exists 5001
    rac1 exists 5001
    Result: Group existence check passed for “oinstall”.

    Check: Membership of user “oracle” in group “oinstall” [as Primary]
    Node Name User Exists Group Exists User in Group Primary Comment
    —————- ———— ———— ———— ———— ————
    rac2 yes yes yes yes passed
    rac1 yes yes yes yes passed
    Result: Membership check for user “oracle” in group “oinstall” [as Primary] passed.

    Administrative privileges check passed.

    Checking node connectivity…

    Interface information for node “rac2”
    Interface Name IP Address Subnet
    —————————— —————————— —————-

    Interface information for node “rac1”
    Interface Name IP Address Subnet
    —————————— —————————— —————-

    Check: Node connectivity of subnet “”
    Source Destination Connected?
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2:eth0 rac1:eth0 yes
    Result: Node connectivity check passed for subnet “” with node(s) rac2,rac1.

    Check: Node connectivity of subnet “”
    Source Destination Connected?
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2:eth1 rac1:eth1 yes
    Result: Node connectivity check passed for subnet “” with node(s) rac2,rac1.

    Suitable interfaces for the private interconnect on subnet “”:
    rac2 eth0:
    rac1 eth0:

    Suitable interfaces for the private interconnect on subnet “”:
    rac2 eth1:
    rac1 eth1:

    Could not find a suitable set of interfaces for VIPs.

    Result: Node connectivity check failed.

    Checking system requirements for ‘crs’…

    Check: Total memory
    Node Name Available Required Comment
    ———— ———————— ———————— ———-
    rac2 1010.29MB (1034536KB) 512MB (524288KB) passed
    rac1 748.36MB (766324KB) 512MB (524288KB) passed
    Result: Total memory check passed.

    Check: Free disk space in “/tmp” dir
    Node Name Available Required Comment
    ———— ———————— ———————— ———-
    rac2 9.4GB (9852104KB) 400MB (409600KB) passed
    rac1 8.88GB (9310020KB) 400MB (409600KB) passed
    Result: Free disk space check passed.

    Check: Swap space
    Node Name Available Required Comment
    ———— ———————— ———————— ———-
    rac2 1.94GB (2031608KB) 1GB (1048576KB) passed
    rac1 1.47GB (1540088KB) 1GB (1048576KB) passed
    Result: Swap space check passed.

    Check: System architecture
    Node Name Available Required Comment
    ———— ———————— ———————— ———-
    rac2 i686 i686 passed
    rac1 i686 i686 passed
    Result: System architecture check passed.

    Check: Kernel version
    Node Name Available Required Comment
    ———— ———————— ———————— ———-
    rac2 2.6.9-89.ELsmp 2.4.21-15EL passed
    rac1 2.6.9-89.ELsmp 2.4.21-15EL passed
    Result: Kernel version check passed.

    Check: Package existence for “make-3.79”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 make-3.80-7.EL4 passed
    rac1 make-3.80-7.EL4 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “make-3.79”.

    Check: Package existence for “binutils-2.14”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 binutils- passed
    rac1 binutils- passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “binutils-2.14”.

    Check: Package existence for “gcc-3.2”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 gcc-3.4.6-11 passed
    rac1 gcc-3.4.6-11 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “gcc-3.2”.

    Check: Package existence for “glibc-2.3.2-95.27”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 glibc-2.3.4-2.43 passed
    rac1 glibc-2.3.4-2.43 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “glibc-2.3.2-95.27”.

    Check: Package existence for “compat-db-4.0.14-5”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 compat-db-4.1.25-9 passed
    rac1 compat-db-4.1.25-9 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “compat-db-4.0.14-5”.

    Check: Package existence for “compat-gcc-7.3-2.96.128”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 compat-gcc-7.3-2.96.128 passed
    rac1 compat-gcc-7.3-2.96.128 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “compat-gcc-7.3-2.96.128”.

    Check: Package existence for “compat-gcc-c++-7.3-2.96.128”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 compat-gcc-c++-7.3-2.96.128 passed
    rac1 compat-gcc-c++-7.3-2.96.128 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “compat-gcc-c++-7.3-2.96.128”.

    Check: Package existence for “compat-libstdc++-7.3-2.96.128”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 compat-libstdc++-7.3-2.96.128 passed
    rac1 compat-libstdc++-7.3-2.96.128 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “compat-libstdc++-7.3-2.96.128”.

    Check: Package existence for “compat-libstdc++-devel-7.3-2.96.128”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 compat-libstdc++-devel-7.3-2.96.128 passed
    rac1 compat-libstdc++-devel-7.3-2.96.128 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “compat-libstdc++-devel-7.3-2.96.128”.

    Check: Package existence for “openmotif-2.2.3”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 openmotif-2.2.3-10.5.el4 passed
    rac1 openmotif-2.2.3-10.5.el4 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “openmotif-2.2.3”.

    Check: Package existence for “setarch-1.3-1”
    Node Name Status Comment
    —————————— —————————— —————-
    rac2 setarch-1.6-1 passed
    rac1 setarch-1.6-1 passed
    Result: Package existence check passed for “setarch-1.3-1”.

    Check: Group existence for “dba”
    Node Name Status Comment
    ———— ———————— ————————
    rac2 exists passed
    rac1 exists passed
    Result: Group existence check passed for “dba”.

    Check: Group existence for “oinstall”
    Node Name Status Comment
    ———— ———————— ————————
    rac2 exists passed
    rac1 exists passed
    Result: Group existence check passed for “oinstall”.

    Check: User existence for “nobody”
    Node Name Status Comment
    ———— ———————— ————————
    rac2 exists passed
    rac1 exists passed
    Result: User existence check passed for “nobody”.

    System requirement passed for ‘crs’

    Pre-check for cluster services setup was unsuccessful on all the nodes.

    When i google it i got some suggestions that just ignore vip for instance and continue installation.
    when i installed cluster i stuck on the last cofiguration post installation steps:

    Checking existence of VIP node application (required)
    Check failed.
    Check failed on nodes:

    Checking existence of ONS node application (optional)
    Check ignored.

    Checking existence of GSD node application (optional)
    Check ignored.

    Post-check for cluster services setup was unsuccessful on all the nodes.

    Configuration assistant “Oracle Cluster Verification Utility” failed
    The “/u01/home/oracle/product/10.2.0/crs/cfgtoollogs/configToolFailedCommands” script contains all commands that failed, were skipped or were cancelled. This file may be used to run these configuration assistants outside of OUI. Note that you may have to update this script with passwords (if any) before executing the same.—————————————————————————–Output generated from configuration assistant “Oracle Cluster Verification Utility”:
    Command = /u01/home/oracle/product/10.2.0/crs/bin/cluvfy stage -post crsinst -n rac1,rac2
    User equivalence check passed for user “oracle”.

    Checking Cluster manager integrity…

    Checking CSS daemon…
    Daemon status check failed for “CSS daemon”.
    Check failed on nodes:

    Cluster manager integrity check failed.

    Checking cluster integrity…

    Cluster integrity check failed. This check did not run on the following nodes(s):

    Checking OCR integrity…

    Checking the absence of a non-clustered configuration…
    All nodes free of non-clustered, local-only configurations.

    Unable to obtain OCR integrity details from any of the nodes.

    OCR integrity check failed.

    Checking CRS integrity…

    Checking daemon liveness…
    Liveness check failed for “CRS daemon”.
    Check failed on nodes:

    Checking daemon liveness…
    Liveness check failed for “CSS daemon”.
    Check failed on nodes:

    Checking daemon liveness…
    Liveness check failed for “EVM daemon”.
    Check failed on nodes:

    Checking CRS health…
    CRS health check passed.

    CRS integrity check failed.

    Checking node application existence…

    Checking existence of VIP node application (required)
    Check failed.
    Check failed on nodes:

    Checking existence of ONS node application (optional)
    Check ignored.

    Checking existence of GSD node application (optional)
    Check ignored.

    Post-check for cluster services setup was unsuccessful on all the nodes.

    Configuration assistant “Oracle Cluster Verification Utility” failed
    The “/u01/home/oracle/product/10.2.0/crs/cfgtoollogs/configToolFailedCommands” script contains all commands that failed, were skipped or were cancelled. This file may be used to run these configuration assistants outside of OUI. Note that you may have to update this script with passwords (if any) before executing the same.—————————————————————————–
    plz help me.

  77. solo said

    I found good points from your blog

  78. Binu said


    I have one query regarding Cloning.

    There is a new Linux(RHEL5) box and I am planning to clone an Oracle production database(10g on RHEL5) to new Linux(RHEL5) box for testing upgrades, testing pacthes before applying the same on the production database. My question is do I need to match the cloned system environment include hardware, memory & disc allocation space with the production system environment?

    Thanks and regards

  79. oracle said

    Hi Sir,
    I am working as an Oracle DBA But not getting much more exposure so i have a limited knowledge. So can u guide me what should i have to do ?


    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi, i suggest to read oracle documentation and books available online and do a self learning in practicals also. i have already given the list of books in my blog. go through them

      sorry culdn’t reply u bcz i am on leave since 3 weeks

  80. Ramjan Ali said

    I want become a oracle dba….what i should do?

    • Pavan DBA said

      u need to have knowledge on sql and learn unix basics. after that you need to do oracle dba course from any institute which will make you good in oracle dba

      sorry culdn’t reply u bcz i am on leave since 3 weeks

  81. Binu said


    Is there any difference between granting a privilege directly by GRANT command and through a ROLE?

    Thanks and regards


  82. Anand Hebsur said

    Hi Pavan,

    This is Anand hebsur from karnataka, Presently working as an System admin cum ERP Admin at Dammam (KSA). We are having Oracle 10g database in windows platform. Some things i know in DBA but that much not in detail.

    I want to make my career as an DBA. Please guide me and let me know which institute i have to join and whether they will be providing placement or not ?

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Anand,

      I am providing online training. If you are interested, you can join next batch which might start in 2nd week of feb.
      for dates and other details, keep watching new batches section in my blog

      sorry culdn’t reply u bcz i am on leave since 3 weeks

  83. binu said


    Hope you are doing fine.I have a couple of questions regarding ASM SPFILE. ASM Version 10R2

    1)How ASM instance can read the SPFILE from ASM disks, id they are not mounted?

    2) How ASM knows where to get SPFILE if there is no init.ora file in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs with SPFILE=[path to spfile]

    Thanks and Regards,


  84. venkat said

    Hi Pavan,

    I am searching for a job in oracle DBA, I learn Oracle DBA 1 year back still i am not getting any job, right now i am planning to learn Apps DBA Pls. give any suggestions

    Actually i never practice DBA from the last six months almost i forgot the concepts so directly i can go for Apps or not

    how much core DBA knowledge is required to learn Apps DBA.

  85. Harsh said

    Hi Pavan,

    I need your guidance in my career path.I’m working as an Oracle DBA but most of my job part is Oracle Performance Tuning and nothing related to cloning,patching and RMAN there are different teams for these activities.But when I search any job online they asked for all these activities as part of DBA job.So how could I get a job as an Oracle Performance DBA.Please guide me into this.Please let me know ur email-id so that I can share my resume with you,help me into this.


    • Pavan DBA said

      most of the companies will not have separate teams to work as tuning specialist etc. so i feel it is better you can refresh your knowledge on those areas like cloning, patching etc. as you are already working as DBA and know about oracle, it will not take much time

    • anusha said

      hii sir ,
      I am a regular follower of ur blog ..firstly thanks a lot for ur useful inforamation.I completed my oracle dba , and i m searching for ORACLE APPS institiutes at hyderabad ..i have seen lot of institutes , and i am not satisfied with faculty .. pls , suggest me a good institute ..


  86. poorna said

    Hi sir, this is purna i just completed oracle dba, mca pass out 2012 i want guidence and advices in subject.

  87. Lakshman said

    Hi Pavan

    I am an Experienced IT professional like to change my career to Oracle DBA line.I have done my Oracle Certification long back and I am an OCA but couldnt get a breakthru into oracle dba line .It will be great if you can advice or give your thoughts .



    • Pavan DBA said

      usually i suggest to try in your company for a role change. if not you need to look for another opp stating you want to change your technology (ofcourse valid reason should be there to project in interviews)

      • Lakshman said


        Thanks for the reply.Its a good suggestion,since I am in a Lead position when I am trying to switch either in my company or other companies they are unable to accept me for Oracle DBA entry /Junior level position because of Grade /Level issues even though I am open for negotiations.

        Your thoughts on this please.


      • Pavan DBA said

        i hope if you can prove that you have knowledge of an exp’d dba, then i think some companies will give a chance

  88. murali said

    Hi Pavan sir,
    This is Murali from hyderabad… i have recently completed my Oracle DBA course, and searching for a job, unfortunately there are no openings for Freshers,my graduation 2010 my qlf mca.but i have doubt fresher jobs is thir or not in dba field .what would you suggest?

  89. Im taking table level export as non sys user from one database, however table structure don’t exist where i will import the table, will it get create automatically or it will thrown an error?

  90. parijeetc said

    Hi Pavan,

    This is Parijeet from Pune… i have recently completed my Oracle DBA course, and searching for a job, unfortunately there are no openings for Freshers, so I was thinking of learning something more about database or learn something which will help me getting a job as a developer ( related to database).. i am a fresher and dont have any technical background.. what would you suggest?

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Parijeet, i would suggest you to do Oracle RAC and Oracle APPS DBA courses too. This will improve the chance of getting job as a fresher. Also, OCP certification will help you alot.

      BTW, what is your qualfn and yr of passout?

      • parijeetc said

        Hi Pavan Sir,

        Thank you so much for your reply, i have done MBA(Finance) in 2007 and and dont have any technical background currently working with Mphasis (Pune) for international BPO.

        When i spoke to Mr Randy Overmyer (Director of IT at ABVI-Goodwill-US) he said :- Oracle’s new customer DB license sales have been fairly flat for 5 years – it’s crazy to try to enter that job market on an entry level. If you paid for an Oracle course out of your own pocket you’ve probably dumped enough money down the drain, You should spend money on moving into more mainstream products such as The largest DB product is MS SQL, then look at the open source DB products – they get more of the start-up market.

        was he right? please guide me?

        I was thinking of joining Saturn infotch(Pune) / Blink consulting(Pune) for their training cum job program for Oracle application technical consultant, is it a good option?? Please guide me about this position? As I would be investing 1.25 lacs for this course.

        Kindly suggest

      • Pavan DBA said

        Always there will be a competition between different database vendors and I cannot comment on which will have good market and which doesn’t. But i can surely say Oracle will have its share in the market….

        coming to course wise, i am not sure about the genunity of those training consultancies, but i feel 1.25 lac is too much costly for oracle course. Personally i don’t suggest to join those kind of places

  91. chandu said

    Hi Sir,

    When I install Oracle 10g i am getting below errors,Could you please provide the solution.

    Platform:Linux 4 64-bit

    Starting Oracle Universal Installer…

    Checking installer requirements…

    Checking operating system version: must be redhat-3, SuSE-9, SuSE-10, redhat-4, redhat-5, UnitedLinux-1.0, asianux-1, asianux-2 or asianux-3

    All installer requirements met.

    Preparing to launch Oracle Universal Installer from /tmp/OraInstall2009-06-09_11-54-16AM. Please wait …[oracle@findb1 Disk1]$ Oracle Universal Installer, Version Production
    Copyright (C) 1999, 2008, Oracle. All rights reserved.

    Can’t connect to X11 window server using ‘’ as the value of the DISPLAY variable.
    OUI-10025:Unable to start an interactive install session because of the following error:Can’t connect to X11 window server using ‘’ as the value of the DISPLAY variable. The DISPLAY environment variable should be set to :, where the is usually ‘0.0’.
    OUI-10026epending on the Unix Shell, you can use one of the following commands as examples to set the DISPLAY environment variable:
    – For csh: % setenv DISPLAY
    – For sh, ksh and bash: $ DISPLAY=; export DISPLAY
    Use the following command to see what shell is being used:
    echo $SHELL
    Use the following command to view the current DISPLAY environment variable setting:
    echo $DISPLAY
    – Make sure that client users are authorized to connect to the X Server.
    OUI-10027:To enable client users to access the X Server, open an xterm, dtterm or xconsole as the user that started the session and type the following command:
    % xhost +
    To test that the DISPLAY environment variable is set correctly, run a X11 based program that comes with the native operating system such as ‘xclock’:
    If you are not able to run xclock successfully, please refer to your PC-X Server or OS vendor for further assistance.
    Typical path for ‘xclock’: ‘/usr/X11R6/bin/xclock’

  92. Rahul said

    I would like to ask you few questions regarding oinstall and dba group.

    1) Is there any difference betwwen oinstall & dba group?

    2) What is oinstall group?

  93. Binu said

    Thanks for your reply. I have one more query regarding Catalog and Catproc.

    Is there any order in which the catalog.sql and catproc.sql scripts to be run?

  94. Binu said


    Hope you are doing fine. I have two questions regarding Catalog.sql and catproc.sql

    1)What will happen if catalog and cataprog not run as SYS user?

    2) Catalog.sql creates data dictionary views, dynamic performance views. Can Oracle function properly without these views? (Suppose catalog.sql not run after DB creation)

    Thanks and regards


    • Pavan DBA said

      1. the ownership of the views getting created will change. apart from that i don’t think any other impact (ofcourse i never tested this)
      2. yes. oracle still work fine without these views. those are only for DBA’s reference

  95. Ganapthi said

    hai sir
    in my one of rac database timsmims which is in asm mode, while i changed one parameter it could not start at next restart i would like to start
    from pfile each instance it up, after i created spfile from pfile , i shutdown each instance at sql again i issue startup commond, but it unable to start and i did not find any errors or changes in alert log file
    please guide me what was problem that database not starting with spfile.

    • Pavan DBA said

      normally when you have asm in place, oracle will create spfile in ASM disk. You need to give that location in your pfile and then you need to start your instance.
      open your pfile and write below line

      spfile=’location and file name where spfile resides’

      save the pfile and then start your instance. this may work

  96. chinmoy said

    Dear Sir,

    I want to import full database from a exported datapump file in
    another machine.both the servers are running in widows,oracle version is 10gR2 . please send me the step-by-step procedure.


    • Pavan DBA said

      1. first you need to copy the dumpfile to target server
      2. run the below command

      imp file=”ur dumpfile name” log=”import log name” full=y

      it will ask for username and password. give “/ as sysdba”, it will do import

  97. Vishnuvardhan Reddy said

    Hi Pvan,

    Can we have multiple ASM instances on a single server?

    Vishnuvardhan Reddy Pandiri

  98. Ahmed said

    Hi Pavan,

    Just wanted to ask you how many days of archives do we need to keep.
    We take cold backup everyday.


  99. Binu said

    1) When to use 10046 Trace?

    2) What is the purpose of the “Row Source operation” section in TKPROF report?

    Thanks and Regards,


  100. chandu said

    Pavan gi could you please provide grid software and installation document on linux os.

  101. sau said

    Hi Pavan,

    Hope you are in good health. Today i have few queries regarding Standby Redo Logs.

    1) We need standby redo log on Primary database for switchover.Right? How many
    Standby Redo Log group will be required on the Primary?

    2) The size of the current standby redo log files must exactly match the size of the
    current primary database online redo log files.What is the exact reason behind

    3) Standby Redo Logs require multiplexing?

    With Regards


    • Pavan DBA said

      1. We need to have same no.of redo log groups as primary. Some DBA’s will follow n+1 formula i.e if primary is having 3 groups, they will create 4 standby groups. but even 3 is also sufficient

      2. yes it should match, because standby is replication of primary

      3. Yes it require. because after switchover or failover, standby will be primary

  102. Anurag Kumar Pandey said

    sir currently working as software engineer to develope web-application since 1 year using open-source technology(php,postgres-sql,mysql)
    but i am very much interested in dba since 2008 so sir what the right step to go for dba job ,sir i am very confuse first i join oracle developer Or Oracle dba i am lot of confuse what to do ?
    please sir tell me and guide me about right direction to career.

    about education–
    1 – in computer science & engineering 2010 with 73%
    2- Diploma in Electronics Engineering 2007 with 76%

    my email-id

  103. sau said

    Hi Pavan

    Hope you are in good health. I have few questions regarding different topics.

    1.What will happen if I run catpatch.sql not in STARTUP UPGRADE mode?

    2.I have two ORACLE_HOME. One for and another for (After applying patch set). ORACLE_HOME has no database. I am planning to create few databases under ORACLE_HOME. Is it necessary, to run catpatch each time after creating a new database?

    3.Why oratab and oraInst.loc files are created under root user? If I change their ownership to oracle user, will it cause any problem?

    4.Is quiescing/suspending a database before backup an option?

    I look forward to receiving your reply. Thanks in advance


    • Pavan DBA said

      1. First of all I doubt whether oracle will accept to run it. Even if it is, proper information may not be recorded in the data dictionary and oracle may not apply patchset correctly

      2. not required

      3. it won’t be any problem

      4. nope. we should not use them before taking backup. “begin backup” is the only option to use

  104. Sau said

    Hiii Pavan

    Hope you are in good health. Thank you very much for answering my questions &
    clearing my doubts.

    Today i have few queries regarding User Managed Hot Backup

    1.After executing ALTER TABLESPACE … BEGIN BACKUP, What will happen to the
    ongoing transaction related to that particular tablespace?

    2.What influences the time taken for the ‘alter tablespace begin backup’

    3.Can we take User Managed Hot Backup using “ALTER TABLESPACE OFFLINE”

    Hope to hear from you soon.Thanks in advance


    • Pavan DBA said

      1. Ongoing transaction will continue without any issue because DBWR will still write the dirty blocks during hotbackup. Only datafile header will be freezed.
      2. I have not got your question clearly. can you explain a little bit plz?
      3. we can take, but that is not a hot backup because you are making tablespace offline which is nothing but downtime for users who are accessing it. so its not a preferred way

      • Sau said

        Hiiii Pavan

        Thanks for your reply.

        Issuing “alter tablespace begin backup” across every tablespace is taking about 10-15 minutes.Why is it taking so much time? (This question is related to
        my 2nd question)

        For example:

        SQL> alter tablespace users begin backup;

        After waiting for 10-15 minutes, it returns ” Tablespace altered.”




      • Pavan DBA said

        may be huge transactions are hitting the database which is making oracle slow down in making datafile header to go for freeze state

      • Sau said

        Thanks for your efforts to share your knowledge and experience with Oracle professionals . Please keep doing that

      • Pavan DBA said

        thank you for the comments and yes i will be doing this….

  105. Jeremiah Moses said

    Hey Pavan,

    I knew you were writing a blog but today is the first time i saw you website. Been a long way since you were sitting next to me in JCE for 3 years you hardly spoke 1 full sentence a day 😀 now here you writing so much. Keep it up m8 !

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hey Jere,

      Thanks macha…

      yes man… i used to be very shy and confined at that time. But grown up a bit now 😀
      Good to see your comments in my blog. I am following you on FB even though I nvr intereacted directly….

      Will start be in touch with you….

  106. sudheer said

    Hi pavan anna,,

    Struggling for getting job for the post of ORACLE DBA as a fresher.
    Please send or post details for fresher.
    Could you let me know the vacancies for fresher.

    • Pavan DBA said

      hi sudheer, any job vacancies, i would be posting in my blog. so keep on watching it. also, recently i posted some fresher openings in CTS. if you haven’t seen that yet, please apply immediately.

  107. Sau said

    Hiiii Pavan

    Hope you are in good health. I have tow queries regarding Log Switch.

    1) If a Log Switch doesn’t happen for a long time, what will happen?

    2) If Log switches happen frequently, What will happen?

    With Regards


    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Sau, thanks. I am doing good and hope the same with you.

      1. If log switch not happening, that means redolog file is not full. so in this case, there is nothing to worry until users complain about some issue. in that case we can check in alert log file
      2. if log switch occurs frequently, then it would cause burden on the DBWR and CKPT processes as they need to write the data to datafiles and controlfiles. this may have impact on performance of the db

      • Sau said

        Hiiii Pavan,

        Thanx for your reply.

        I have read somewhere that if a log switch doesn’t occur for a long time then there
        may be chances of losing data when the redo log file get corrupt. Is it true?

        Is there any impact for standby DB, if the primary databases have
        ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET parameter enabled?

        With regards


      • Pavan DBA said

        Yes, we would be loosing data if the file is corrupted and log switch is not yet happened. But to avoid that, we are going to have multiplexing of redolog files into different disks. In that case, even if one member is corrupted, other member still will be there to help out.

        that is why one more reason, why oracle will recommend to have less size for redolog files (to avoid corruptions and go for frequent log switches)

        ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET limits the amount of data that can be lost and effectively increases the availability of the standby database by forcing a log switch after the specified amount of time.

        A 0 value disables this feature.Values larger than 7200 seconds are not of much use in maintaining a reasonable lag in the standby database. The typical, or recommended value is 1800 (30 minutes). Extremely low values can result in frequent log switches, which could degrade performance; such values can also make the archiver process too busy to archive the continuously generated logs.

  108. Thiru said

    Hi Pavan,

    I just seen your “about author” and surprised to see the name Jerusalem over there..Are you graduated from Jerusalem College of Engg,Chennai?

    I too completed my degree over there and now working as a Oracle (Apps) DBA in an MNC.


  109. Sayba said


    Kindly provide an accurate answers to the following questions pls,.

    Question 1:

    1.”Because of DBA error (before we started obviously!), an important database was created with a 2k block size, and as it is physically on a SAN with an 8k write chunk, we are dealing with unnecessary performance implications.

    Please prepare a detailed, technical (how you plan to do it) _and_ logistical (what you plan to do, in what order, when and how long you think it would take) project plan for our conversion of our database from a 2k block size to an 8k block size.

    For estimation purposes, a full database export of this database takes 12 hours, and we estimate a full database import would take about two to three times as long because of index re-creation time. Assume our cost of down-time is $10,000 per hour and as a result it’s very important to come up with methods of reducing downtime. Needless to say, 36 hours of downtime, at a cost of $360,000 is completely out of the question. Obviously, with such a high cost of downtime, we have properly resourced the environment in terms of disk space on the SAN. As well, we have a spare server available if necessary to further reduce the downtime. ”

    Question 2:

    2.Use the link following this question to download the interview.dmp

    Using the INTERVIEW schema:
    Table USERS

    User_id (PK) (generated via a sequence)







    SUbscription_id (PK) (generated via a sequence)

    user_id (UK) (FK from users)

    subscription_type (UK)




    subscription_id (PK) (FK from subscriptions)

    action (PK)

    timestamp (PK)

    sample data:


    user_id email gender age name

    1 m 30 rob

    2 m 31 robert

    3 f 18 lucie

    4 f 22 lulu

    5 m 10 kim

    6 f 18 kim

    7 f 08 kim

    8 f 18 JJ

    9 m 22 Jay

    10 f 88 Bill

    11 f 88 Will

    12 f 60 Will

    13 m 70 George


    subscription_id user_id subsciption_type active_indicator

    1 2 Magazine Yes

    2 3 Music CD No

    3 3 Magazine Yes

    4 3 Video Yes

    5 8 Magazine Yes

    6 9 Video Yes

    7 10 Magazine No

    8 13 Magazine yes


    subscription_id action timestamp

    1 Renewal 2002-sep-10

    2 Renewal 2002-Jan-01

    2 Cancellation 2002-Feb-01

    3 Renewal 2002-Aug-20

    4 Renewal 2002-Aug-01

    4 Renewal 2002-Sep-01

    5 Renewal 2002-Aug-01

    6 Renewal 2001-Sep-01

    7 Renewal 2002-Sep-01

    7 Cancellation 2002-Sep-10

    Type of business:

    We are a subscription company where people signup to received products

    like CDs, books, magazines, etc. We always try to market new

    subscriptions to our existing client base, but having millions of

    customers of which many use the same email address we like to send are

    promotional email’s once.


    Some assumptions will need to be made. Please list any such assumptions.

    Generate a list of unique email addresses with the latest name, gender

    and age for a user with that email

    The selection criteria limit the list to users which never subscribed to

    anything; or;

    users with inactive subscriptions; or;

    users with active subscriptions that renewed between Sep 1st and sep

    30th of any year

    answer should be: m 31 robert f 22 lulu f 08 kim m 22 Jay f 60 Will

    Question 3:

    3.using the INTERVIEW SCHEMA

    We require a PL/SQL program to be written that will take the data in the TSOURCE table and 1. insert rows not currently in the TDEST table and 2. update TDEST rows with a matching KEYVAL value with the data in TSOURCE.

    Please write the program so as to maximize overall performance and efficiency.

    Be sure to carefully rollback your work after every attempt at running your program so that you have a chance to try again!

    Bonus points if you can measure for us exactly how many buffer gets your pl/sql program uses using tkprof.

    Question 4:
    4.Please install statspack/perfstat to take performance snapshots every 15 minutes on the 15 minutes except during our batch window of midnight until 7am, during which time we would like performance snapshots taken every 2 hours at the top of the hour (midnight, 2, 4 and 6).

    I am really interested in the scheduling part not the content of the perfstat reports themselves

    • Pavan DBA said

      As you have not mentioned your OS version and database version, I am assuming it as and OS as some unix flavour.

      1. If your database is 9i or above, you can use non-default block size tablespaces, in which case we don’t need to do conversion at all. All we need to do is just move the tables to new non-default block size tablespaces which would not take huge downtime.

      as you mentioned export is taking 12 hours, I would like to know if it is traditional export you are talking about or datapump? and what is the database size? If it is traditional export, then we need to check the time taking with datapump also. Surely datapump will run faster than normal export with the help of parallel and other options.

      Also, we can do export/import of tables and other objects skipping indexes. later after import, we can create indexes. this will reduce the import time.

      2. I have not understood your 2nd question. please explain me in details

      3. I am not a perfect programmer in PL/SQL, so any developer can help you on this

      4. If your database is 10g version, then you don’t need to use statspack instead you can use AWR report which will run every one hour automatically
      If it is statspack, you can try scheduling through dbms_jobs or using spauto.sql script as perfstat user

      please do mention versions so that I can help with some accurate answers

  110. Hi Pavan,
    This is good to see your dba profile and hope to learn from you in near future. I am from karachi pakistan and completed my training of OCP from an recognized institute and about to attempt my first paper of SQL in coming month. These days m practicing oracle 10g on TEST environment in a pharmaceutical company.
    Till now i practiced DDL, DML, TCL and DCL statements but the problem that i am having is m week in concepts of table space, pfile, spfile, user space, schema, constraints, instance, data file etc. operating is fine i can operate but when it comes to the concepts of technical brief i am dumb. How can i improve and can clear my basic concepts apart from searching on google and what line of action should i follow to practice in easy manner to get improve quickly and to be able to operate maximum amount of data in short period of time.
    Best Regards,
    Zeeshan Girach!

  111. vikas said

    Hi sir,
    i am trying to install oracle 10g on RHEL 6 but i could not do it
    so will you share some document to install oracle on RHEL 6.

  112. Ahmed said

    Hi Pavan,

    This is ahmed, I have heard lot about you from my friends.

    Just wanted to ask you about the difference between an oracle client installation and oracle software installation.
    If i install oracle client then i dont think it will have database in it. I guess we need to connect it to a different server to get the access.

    Could you please tell me the difference in installing oracle client and oracle software itself and also where and why do we use oracle client?

    Thanks in advance for your help. you are doing a very nice job. God Bless you

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Ahmed, yes. your view regarding client and database software is correct. client s/w will not have database, so if we install client s/w, we cannot create database.

      Oracle database software will be used in DB server to create new databases (as we already know).

      Suppose we have a java application on server A (all java code will be put in this server). We have created database on another server B (here we will install database software and created database). Now if this java application (running on A) need to connect o database (running on B), we need to install oracle client s/w on A.

      Installing client s/w is almost like database s/w. after installation, we need to configure TNSNAMES.ORA (in our case on server A) and that will connect to database (in our case B) using listener which runs on B.

      hope this gives u some idea

  113. chandu said

    Hi Sir,

    Good Day,

    What is the use of v$timezone_file,If it is lessthan 4 what we have to do?Bcz presentely i am working in patching & upgradation team.

    How to resolve this one.

    Appreciate your help.


  114. Sayba said


    Iam still waiting for the replay to my question which I posted you yeaterday.

  115. suganya said

    Hi Pavan,

    I have a requirement to convert 9i database to 11g database with zero downtime.
    Could you let me know whether this is possible? if so, can you elaborate the steps.


    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Suganya,

      I couldn’t understand what you mean by convert? do you mean upgrade or migration?
      upgrade means moving to 11g on the same server
      migration means moving to 11g on diff server.

      If you are doing upgrade then zero down time is not possible. But if you are doing migration, then it is possible.

      please elaborate your requirement so that I can give better suggestion and steps to do that

  116. sayba said


    Thanks for the replay. Let me explain you more about my professional journey,,basically I have been in this IT industry as an oracle DBA from last 4 years.But unfortunatly the account where I used to work for long time does not gave me an oppertunity to explore my skills at all areas of oracle DBA coz of no work. As a result of which when I come out from the company my knowledge level was zero (fit for nothing).

    Again I struggled and able to find DBA job in another company,,but the actual thing is iam not interested in technical work coz,,,,

    1.Iam not good at logical thinking 2. Iam very very poor at programming whetehr it is shell or PL/SQL or Database 3.Iam reaching to 40yrs
    Based on the above constraints please suggest me what I have to do to carry out my journey in an IT industry ?

    Basically ,,Iam an ITIL certified with 8+yrs of experience in IT industry with relavent as 4yrs in Oracle DBA.

    Kindly suggest me what I have to do to proceed further ?

    • Pavan DBA said


      If you have perfect hands on with DBA topics (as you said you didn’t got much chance to work on all concepts in your earlier Oracle exp), you can get the job with right kind of project within no time.

      Moreover DBA will not have any technical work, so you need not to worry about programming etc. So, I suggest to get home practise on RMAN, Cloning, Upgradation, Patching, Dataguard, ASM etc and you will find the best job for you

  117. Balakrushna said

    Hi pavan Sir
    I have dout in older export and import utility
    I have taken One dump file of table and Consistent=N before that I have updated that table but I am not given the committed.
    While I export to another schema the dump file contains the uncommitted data also.
    so i have dout in what does Consistent parameter will do in oracle older export ?
    I think that consistent parameter is for the export dump file will take only previous image block am I wright or wrong ?
    if I am wrong please explain me ?

  118. Sayba said

    Hi Pavan,

    I have gone through your blog first time looks like very interesting. My question is iam not at all good at Programming side even writing/understanding a small database script or RMAN script will be a tough task for me.I wanted to pursue my career in SQL SERVER DBA which I came to know a bit easy to learn and no Programming knowledge required.

    Do we really need any programming knowledge or .net or do we need to read scripts used where we need to modify the production server issues in SQL SERVER DBA?

    Currently I want to switch my career from oracle DBA To Peoplesoft DBA or Sql Server DBA coz I find it difficult coz of my zero PROGRAMMING KNOWLEDGE.

    Kindly advice.

    • Pavan DBA said


      If you can put little effort in learning shell script, its easy only. So I recommend to try that.

      As you said, SQL Server DBA is quite a bit easy as administration of it can be done using GUI tool. But, may be there also you need some logical thinking (I cannot call it as programming as programming means wirting code for front end applications). We need to write some scripts there also.

      As I am not having pretty much idea about SQL Server DBA, I cannot comment much on that…

  119. ravi kumar chowdary said

    Hi sir, i am ravi kumar chow dary.u r student.i want know about oracle server & oracle client..what is the diffrence between oracle server & client.

    right now i installed oracle client in my PC.i want install oracle server in my PC

    plese tell me

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Ravi,

      Oracle server is nothing but database. Client is a software which we will use from applications to connect to database (when database is residing on another machine than application server)

      • ravi kumar chowdary said

        Hi sir, this is ravi kumar..i learn core dba on linux plotform (10g version) .right now my organization in windows plotform (9i version).what is the major diffrences between two to work on windows plotform ??

        tell me sir.

      • Pavan DBA said

        Hi Ravi,

        the basic administration activites will remain same even in windows. But some activities which need OS help will change. for example, to start the database you need to make sure even service is running in services.msc file. etc

        Create a test database on your home machine (if possible) and get hands on. If any doubts, plz contact me

      • Ravi kumar chowdary said

        Hi sir,
        This is ravi kumar.i want know windows plotform dba comands like (to take cold backup & hardback).my oraganization is windows plotform.
        i know Linux plotform comands.plese give me sir.

      • Pavan DBA said

        see this link –

      • ravi kumar said

        Hi pavan sir ,
        i am checking in that website,in that there is no information regarding oracle dba(windows plotform) comands..i don’t have sufficient knowledge on windows plotform.i don’t have how to work on windows plotform.

        and one more thing single system (linux) we install oracle 10g client & server in same machine.

        tell me

      • Pavan DBA said

        hi ravi, for windows we don’t have specific commands related to oracle. all oracle commands in linux will work as it is in windows also (for eg lsnrctl, tnsping, exp, imp etc).

        regarding your question, yes we can install, but there is no use because server software already will have all the files related to client software

    • Ravi kumar said

      Hi sir,

      i am ravi kuamr.u r ex-student.i want know windows plotform oracle dba comands..i learn dba linux plotform comands.i don’t know how to took export &import database.plese send me sir

  120. anil said

    Hello Pavan sir,

    I want full details of TOP FIVE EVENTS and ALL HIT RATIOS .why events will be occur and how solve ,Can you please help me by providing the all details?

    Thanks ,

  121. prabhudba said

    hi sir,
    can we do oracle installation in silent mode i’m interested in learning it please help me out with any doc

  122. ravi kumar chowdary said

    hi pavan sir,

    i am ravi kuamr chowdary.u r ex-student..i learn core dba & appsdba..right now i got a job on sql server..i don’t have knowledge about sql server..pls give me breff discussion about sql server.right now i am in training.

    • Pavan DBA said

      Hi Ravi,

      Congratulations first of all….

      I hope it is SQl Server DBA. in such case, it would be similar to Oracle DBA. SQL Server is the database from Microsoft. only difference is in the architecture and way of doing administration. As it is more GUI based, you will feel it is easy to manage.

  123. teja said

    Thanks for your reply on this Pavan.

  124. teja said

    Hi Pavan, I need help on this. This entire task should be done on the production environment.

    Task :

    We have a two node rac now in our environment. But one node was down due to hardware problem from last 1 year.

    Recently we ordered a new server for Database. It came to our site now. So first i have to remove the bad node from the existing rac and then i have to add the brand new node to the existing rac.

    But the problem is:

    Type of the brand new server which is to be add is : T3-1

    Type of exixting dbserver in rac is : T5240.

    Details of existing rac is:

    1) Oracle DB Version : 10.2.0. 4
    2) OS : Sun Solaris 10 version 5/9 u7
    3)Kernel Version : 144488-17

    But the New server which is to be added will not support this “Sun Solaris 10 version 5/9 u7” os (including version). T3-1 server supports these os only: OS solaris 11 , solaris 10 10/9 and solaris 10 9/10.

    My doubt here is, In this case shall we add this node to the existing RAC??? If Yes, My problem was solved, If not possible – Is there any possible way to add this node.???

    Note : We have a one more T3-1 server which is in nfs server cluster( this is os cluster). In least cases we can remove this from nfs cluster and we can make a new 2 node RAC for DB using 2 T3-1 servers.Then we have to migrate the existing rac which is on only one T5240server to the newly made RAC of 2 T3-1 servers. In this case how much down time for DB is needed…?? Please help me on this.

    I am Awaiting for you reply Sir…

    Thanks in advance


    • As far as I know, always it is better to have RAC environment with same OS and same hardware. As you said the new server can support only solaris 11, then I assume it is not possible to have second node on that server.

      So, the possible way is to remove that OS cluster server and make that as 2 node RAC and migrate the data. In this case, you may not need much downtime as you can do RMAN cloning from single machine to RAC machine.

      Steps for cloning single to RAC machine is available in a note in metalink. you can browse for that.

      Above all, I suggest to raise SR with Oracle support and do this task (since it’s production) as they can best tell the easiest way….

    • tangy said

      Try building a standby system from existing rac to new 2 node rac and make a switch over. This should have minimum downtime than expected. please give a test before implementing this.

    • ravi said




  125. teja said

    Thanks thangy for your note id

  126. teja said

    Hi Pavan,

    Good Morning.
    I have seen your active participation on this and it is very pleasure to me on this.
    I have a very big task infront of me in coming days. Will you please help me on this.

    Task : We have a 2 node rac now and only one node is up and running now since last 1 year. ( The other one was of hardware failure ).
    Now 2 new DBservers came for our project and I have to setup rac on these two new servers and after setting up of this new rac environment successfully, then i have to move the old rac ( ie.. running on only one node) to the new rac.

    Os version : Sun solaris 10
    DB Version : oracle 10.2.04
    RAC to be setup : 10G rac

    Will you please guide me with the basic procedure and steps orally, So that i will do my work around on this later.

    It is very pleasure to me if you give me any doc id on metalink.( doc id needed for setting up 10grac on solaris10 and for rac migration)

  127. vikas dharmadhikari said

    Hi sir.
    what is the difference between materialized view and snapshot?

    • Snapshot is the name oracle used till 8i and from 9i we are calling it as materialized view. difference is MV will use MV log mechanism in order to refresh data. for more details go throguh oracle documentation

      • Dilip said

        Hi Pavan,

        I am Dilip from chennai, working as Oracle apps DBA having about 1.8 yrs of experience.. I agree its easy way to get placed in campus but tough to landup with fresher jobs as DBA. Your post brings lots of hope and confidence for those want to get sneak through doors of database administrators.. 🙂
        I join here today to get some exposure, knowledge sharing and tips from you…All the very best..


      • thank you Dilip

  128. vemuri said

    sir what is the difference between synchronous I/O and asynchronous I/O and what is the relation of them with oracle

  129. vikas dharmadhikari said

    hi sir
    i have one question that some dynamic performance views works at nomount
    ans mount i just want to know from where these views fetch the data

    • These views will fetch the data from X$tables which will get initiated in the nomount state itself

      • vikas dharmadhikari said

        thank u sir…………

      • tangy said

        Excellent question, It definitely retrieves information from X$tables, it could be proved by running explain plan on the query. But where are these tables stored and retained in no mount state. I hope it should be definitely in the SGA.

  130. Mahesh said

    Great to See you

  131. vemuri said

    hi sir,
    where does scn number stored in redologfiles.How to find it?

    • SCN number will be stored in redo entry in one of its column. In order to read redo entry we need to use LOGMINER utility. we will use dbms_logmnr package. for syntax and other details, just google it

  132. vemuri said

    hi sir,
    I have only hotbackup and i lost all my redolog files then how to recover them.plz give me the solution

  133. santhosh said

    Hi sir
    I’m santhosh
    till now i did’nt go through your blog
    but after seeing this replies and comments
    hope ur blog was plenty enough to become a good DBA
    Thank You

  134. chandrashekar G said

    Dear Pavan,

    I am getting an error while running EXPDP.

    Please Help me

    C:\>expdp system/manager@CNBKRRB1 full=y directory=test_dir dumpfile=expdp.dmp logfile=expdp.log

    Export: Release – Production on Wednesday

    Copyright (c) 2003, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

    Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release – Production

    With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

    ORA-39002: invalid operation

    ORA-39070: Unable to open the log file.

    ORA-29283: invalid file operation

    ORA-06512: at “SYS.UTL_FILE”, line 488

    ORA-29283: invalid file operation

  135. sanjay pogul said

    Good Evening Sir,

    My name is Sanjay. Sir, I am an OCP Certified DBA. I am looking for the job of DBA as fresher. Being a fresher & non-IT background, I am not getting any interview calls. I don’t know what to do. Sir, can you guide me please?

    • Hi Sanjay,

      getting a fresher DBA job is tough task, but never loose hope and keep on trying. Donno if you had done this already, if not post your cv to all job sites and daily login and apply for the jobs suitable to you….

  136. chandu said

    hi pavan,

    Whenever i enable change tracking file that time i will get the below error..pls provide the solution..

    ora-19760 error starting change tracking oracle

  137. suman said

    hi sir,
    I got an error ora 01157 error while changing the locations of all my files to a new mount point .
    I have moved all the files to new location and edited the pfile .Now when i started my database it just went to mount stage and not able to open showing the above error.I am using 10g database.Are there any other locations to change.
    Please give me explanation regarding this scenario

    • Hi Suman,

      after moving datafiles and redologfiles, did u ran relocation command in mount stage? for example
      SQL> alter database rename file ‘old loc’ to ‘new loc’;

      If not plz do it. you edited pfile only for controlfiles. but to make oracle understand about datafiles and redologfiles, you need to run above command for each and every file. then you can open your database

  138. G .chandrashekar said

    Hi Sir,How r u sir,

    Sir pls provide script regarding genarating the AWR report(I need to genarate every one hour) so pls provide the script..

    and one more thing is i want shift the archive logs from primary to standby but primary & standby both are different environments how to shifts the archives.

    • Hi Chandra,

      I am fine & hope the same with you

      1. AWR itself will take snaps every 1 hour. so there is no need again to run it for every one hour. The only script we use to generate report is ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrrpt.sql
      2. I am not sure why you need to shift archives. when you have dataguard env, archives will get shipped automatically… can you explain a bit more on this?

      • Chandrashekar said

        hi pavan,

        If archives are not shifting to standby due to n/w problems some other problems,in that time i will disable the DG at Standby side and shift the archives,i know the process of that one but if it is diffrent env what is the procedure…

      • I am not sure why you are doing it manually? in case if you have network problem, oracle will use the help of FAL (fetch archive log) process to take care of this. so, no need to manually do the things. to know more about FAL, read oracle documentation

      • G .chandrashekar said

        Hi Pavan,

        Neeed script to monitor CPU Utilization…

      • cpu utilization can be found using “top” command in unix and through task manager in windows

    • Chandrashekar said

      In RMAN is it posible to increase the retention policy?,If it is posible pls explain me how to increase and what is the command..

      • yes it is possible. when you type show all, by default it gives you retention policy to redundancy 1. you can change that like below

        RMAN> CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO RECOVERY WINDOW OF 28 DAYS; – this is in case you are using recovery window
        RMAN> CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 30; – this is in case we use redundancy

      • G .chandrashekar said

        Hi Sir,

        How to enable block change tracking in rman,Is there any parameters changing required in controlfile????

        Or in sql directely we can use this command only..


        Pls explain me what is main purpose in background how it will work…..????

      • yes it is directly to run that sql statement. there is no other parameter to set for this.
        what happens in background?
        1. when block change tracking is enabled, when ever a block is change the corresponding block id is written to a file.
        2. when RMAN backup is initiated, rman process direcly reads this file and will start taking backup of those blocks.
        this helps in reducing the backup time as it will not compare block scn with last backup

      • chandu said

        thank you pavan ge….

      • G .chandrashekar said

        Hi Sir,

        What are the mandatory parameters in DATA GUARD,what is the use of those parameters,and how to transfers the datafiles,archive shipping…

        Pls explain me briefly…

      • Hi Chandu, I have a document attached in “Important Docs” page for physical standby database creation and dataguard broker. please check that and get back to me in case of any questions

  139. Hai sir,please send some details about crontab with some simple examples.How to execute oracle jobs from crontab?.

    • again, google will help you alot….

    • Nitan Jandial said

      What is cron?

      Actually it is called ‘cron daemon’. Cron is an automatic task machine. You will use it on your Unix or Linux operating systems for doing some tasks at specific intervals with out your intervention every time. You set the clock and forget. The cron daemon runs the work for you.

      What are the components of cron?

      minute====00-59====exact minute the cron executes
      hour======00-23====hour of the day the cron executes(0 means midnight)
      day=======01-31====day of the month the cron executes
      month=====01-12====month of the year the cron executes
      weekday===00-06====day of the week the cron executes(Sunday = 0, Monday = 1, Tuesday = 2, and so forth)
      command===Special==complete sequence of commands to execute
      Examples how to set cron:
      If you have installed a cgi script in your cgi-bin directory called members.cgi and wanted to run this program each night as 11.30 PM as in above example.

      You would setup the following crontab line:

      30 23 * * * /home/username/www/cgi-bin/members.cgi

      30–represents the minute of cron work
      23–represents the hour of the day
      The * represent every day, month, and weekday.

      If you want to set the cron job every sunday at midnight 11.30 PM then it would be like:

      30 23 * * 0 /home/username/www/cgi-bin/members.cgi
      0–represents the Sunday.
      If you want the cron job to run at 1:00 and 2:00 A.M then you can set it like:

      * 1,2 * * * /home/username/www/cgi-bin/members.cgi

      This runs your cron at 1 and 2 A.M every day, every month and every week.

      If you want to run the above task only from Monday to Friday then set it like:

      * 1,2 * * 1-5 /home/username/www/cgi-bin/members.cgi
      Setting up the cron:
      You will be in one of these situations.

      ONE:This would be your first cron tab function.

      SECOND:You already have cron tab file on your server running one or more cron functions for you.

      Hope this would help you.


  140. Hai sir.Please send some useful suggestions(how to approach) to get Oracle DBA job.

    • Hi, the only way to get a DBA job is to practise a lot and keep on reading theory. You can refer to “Expert Oracle administartion” book by Sam.R.Alapati which gives good knowledge.

  141. i wanna follow u sir..
    may allowed please..
    you have vry good n nice style of teaching

  142. what is the snapshot too older?

    • it is a error which oracle throws to a select user if it doesn’t find either new data in datafile and old data in undo. it is famously called as ORA-1555 as you know. this occurs because of less undo tbs size or frequent commits etc

  143. Unmesh said

    Hello Mr. Pavan,

    I have gone through your blog and your knowledge on DBA is exceptionally apar from other DBA bloggers.
    Like you i am also very much interested in pursuing my career in DBA field, but couldn’t find any opportunities.
    Can you please help me out.

    Thanks in Advance.

    Mail me @

    Awaiting for your email.

  144. chandrashekar said

    Hi pavan ge,

    this is chandrashekar,i have done oracle course recentely last 3months back after that i attend interviews i stragulled there bt finally i got the gob in WIPRO last week only.But i dont have practical knowledge,can u guide me how to gain the practical part,enviroment of the realtime really my body is sheking whenver i think that company….

    • the smart thing about DBA is what ever you practised during course, same you will be doing in real time also. so be handy with all the topics which helps you alot

      • chandrashekar said

        thaku pavan, and one more is thing what are the real time senarioes in datagard means(errors, realtime question like that…)Pls help me on this part,bcz i m poor in dataguard

      • anyone can explain scenerios only on their experience. if you got any errors whileconfiguring, u can tell them as the scenerios… u can refer to oracle documentation to get idea on dataguard

  145. srinivas said

    Hi pavan sir
    i am proud to say that i am your student(kanna technologies),i am MCA 2010 passed out.I hav good percentages(above 65) but i hav less confident on me to get a job,so that i stayed in my home last one yr,now i returned to hyderabad now i really got confident that i can also get job and i am thinking that i choosen the best inst and best faculty to learn dba course in hyderabad.

    Thankyou so much sir.

    • yes being confident will always helps us in acheiving the goals. happy that atlast you decided your path. WISH U ALL THE VERY BEST ! I am here always to help you in case your doubts are within my knowledge level 🙂

  146. vk said

    Hi machi,

    I am a 2004 batch mca graduate(1 paper pending for a long time) unfortunately caught into the BPO domain for more than 3 yrs and I always wanted to become an dba. Now i have quit the job and finished MCTS certification in sql server to become sql dba but I am searching for more than 6 mths and I am unable to land in a job. Why there is no opening for freshers in the DBA field even though i have knowledge and I clear most of the interviews. Why do co’s expect with 2-3 yr exp. only? Please let me know what abt the chances of getting a job in hyd/banglore? I am almost fed up ! Sometimes i feel iam gonna fall into bpo again which i dont like at all. Whats the use of wkg without satisfaction?


    • Hi Vinodh, you are definetly right. There is no reason for working if we are not satisfied. reg your question, why fresher DBA jobs are less? as always databases are critical to handle and contains important data, clients will look for an exp professional rather than a fresher(their feeling is unexp person may not take right decision at right time which is sometimes true).

      But we do still have fresher DBA openings and it takes is time. Even I also started my career as fresher after struggling alot. I am send mail to you on what can be done next….plz check

  147. Nisha said


    I am new to oracle,i have installed Oracle Database11g R2,Oracle Grid 11g R2
    and these two i used Vmware and Oracle Linux 5.5.
    Now i want to install Data Guard for my Rac so i read so many
    notes and google for it but really i did not feel bad in any other
    configuration like i felt bad in Data Guard configurations
    so still i am not able to configure Data Guard if anyone plz wants to help me
    contact me here is the email ID.

    thanks in Advance.

  148. banti said

    Hi Pavan,

    I am really impressed to see your blog.Its really a good source of sharing knowledge.I did Oracle DBA course and I want to know that what are the common errors facing by you people in real time scenarios.
    Plz send me some real and common problems related space management,user management,backup,recovery,data pump(export/import),Cloning,Performance Tuning,Upgardation,Migration with ORA-XXXX and its solutions.

    Thanks & regards,

    • Hi Banti,

      whatever the technical articles I posted, all are the common problems we face. I will be keep on posting so many others. Do watching this blog.

  149. Nagesh said

    Hi pavan,
    I ve done oracle DBA 10G nd OCP certified,presently im working in govt sector from 10months but only involved in monitoring database so i looking fr a change in job .. at present no openings fr freshers SO can u nplz suggest me wat to do….

    • as you are close to a year, you can start searching with 1+. ofcourse chances are less, but not impossible. even being in current position, you can self learn n practise to attain most knowledge

  150. Munna said


    I need the steps to upgrade the db from to and from to in both silent and manual mode.Please share ASAP.


    • hi munna,

      when doing any upgradation, it is must that you follow oracle upgrade guide instead of going or depending on regular ones which you can get from many websites.
      you can download patchset from my oracle support (metalink) which contains readme.html file. this file will give details on how to upgrade in both the ways you asked for.

    • also it is same for you can directly upgrade from to

  151. venkata santhosh kumar B said

    Hi Pavan,

    This is santhosh, a 2009 B.Tech pass out under the discipline of computers. I have done DBA course perfectly. So, can i have opportunity for a break in my career. I think you can guide me for a best career.

    • hi santhosh, i can say DBA fresher jobs will be less but not impossible ! so plz keep on trying and post your cv in every job site you come across. also if any openings that i would know, surely i will be posting it here. so keep watching my blog

  152. Younus said

    One of my user has created new datafile in t1 tablespace but the user is not able to insert the data or we can say not get stored data in created table what is the solution of this….

    Plz help me out…..


    • first we need to check in alert log if there is any error for why data is not been written to file. also need to check whther the datafile added correctly. based on that we can take action. i had never seen such thing till now, but if get it will be quite interesting !

      • Younus said

        hi Pavan thanks for rply

        But that is not the answer of my question !!! i mean alert log file has the information about that datafile and the datafile is also added correctly ….

        And one more thing how many standby destination we can set in primary parameter file “like destination of archives”…

      • ok, what is the error msg users are getting while inserting the data? may be based on that we can analyze more.

        regarding, standby destinations, we can have 9 till 10g and 29 in 11g

  153. Hi Pavan,

    Your blog is becoming a lot day by day (as expected)…its really helping a lot. I posted a comment on your performance tuning related category regarding sessions and process.

    Recently i ran a script aflobbld.sql which is to create fnd_lobs_ctx index in Oracle Apps 11i…the script ran for more than 24 hours…so we killed the session using “alter system kill session..” but when we tried to run the same script again this script is waiting for the “library cache lock” held by previous session(which is already marked as killed)…how to get this lock cleared with out bouncing?

    Can you please help me on this?

    • Hi Naveen,

      Library cache locks will occur when the same object is being accessed by some one else. have you run this script in non-peak hours where there is no user activity? If so, there could be some sessions still holding the lock which you can find using below query

      select saddr from v$session where sid = ;

      also, Library cache lock is exposed via x$kgllk, dba_kgllock, dba_lock_internal view. so check in those views.

  154. rajesh said

    I am rajesh from banglore.this block is very nice,it is very useful for all.i am 2010 fresher i have done oracle DBA,RAC.i want learn more knowlegde from you.i hope i am waiting for u r respond.

    thank you

  155. prathap said

    hi pavan garu,

    this is prathap. i would like to do the job in DBA side but i didnt have any experience in that field but can u give any suggestion me for real time scenarios. now i am applying to the oracle dba positions face interviews but ilittle bit difficult to me facing the questions. ac

  156. anand said

    hi pavan,

    this is anand ,i have seen ur blog this is really amazing .now am being trained as an oracle apps dba in hyd , i dnt have any experience till now but i want to get recruited as a real time expert for abt 3+ , do u have any suggestions for me plz .

    best wishes,

  157. Sudhakar Reddy said

    hi dude..hw are u..worthful information pavan..your blog is always inspiration to me..give me a chance to attend ur classes, on next visit to hyd surely wl meet, blocking your appointment now itself 🙂


    • am gud buddy and expecting same with you. thanks for your words, but i am still trying to understand about oracle. for you, my schedule is always vacant dude…but donno if u can able to meet others than my sister :-))

  158. Shah said

    Greetings Mr. Pavan,
    Glad to view your blogs….
    Pavan, kindly send me your personal id – i need to take your suggestions.
    you can email me test mail at
    waiting for your reply

  159. srinivas said

    hi pavan this is srinivas from kodada, just i see ur bd (bio data)..i complted my btech(cse)in 2007 from sana engg college,kodada.after that i worked for jkc/ieg,hyderabad upto 2 yrs. i have no job satisfaction in that .. i resigned fir my duties in march-2010.i decided to mould my career in ORACLE DBA side ..i learned the things in hyderabad .. recently i came to bangalore for job trials…

    I eill keep in touch with you for the improvement of myself as an ora-dba.

  160. varun said

    Hello Sir,

    I want to perform dataguard implementation on my laptop(both primary and standby on same system).
    i googled it out…..dint got exact steps…….
    plz can u send me the steps for the same.

    it will be really appreciated if u mail me complete steps…

    Thanks in advance

  161. sai said

    hi sr
    you are so cool
    you are very good teacher
    how did u learn that much subject sr

  162. raghu said

    hai…raghu 4m kanna techonologies…….your so cool sir

  163. RamaRaju said

    hi, pavan this is ramaraju,up dated with u r blog last month but sorry unable to be in touch with u.thanks for u r recruitment up dates.

  164. Munna said

    Hey Pavan,

    Hope you are fine.

    I got the answer for this…

    Is there any way to list the objects that statistics are not collected and not good enough. If so what are the methods. (For a schema/for a object / for a database)

    Please do not mention about last_analyzed as everybody knows about it.

    Ans :
    ” dba_tab_statistics & dba_ind_statistics
    These views have a column named STALE_STATS, which automatically gets updated to ‘YES’ for a table or index if more than 10% of its data is modified since its last update-stats.
    — To know a list of objects with stale stats at the schema level,
    we can call the package
    DBMS_STATS.GATHER_SCHEMA_STATS with the parameter options=>’LIST STALE’
    DBMS_STATS.GATHER_DATABASE_STATS with the parameter options=>’LIST STALE’
    This will internally fetch its data from *_tab_modifications views
    In 10g when the value of statistics_level is ‘typical’ or ‘all’ table monitoring is automatically enabled. ”

    And also look at round(sample_size/num_rows*100,1) AS “%” from dba_tables which gives a percentage of collection for an object.

  165. srikanth.M said

    hi sir,
    i have seen u r blog it’s great.
    u r guidence is good b’cause i know without guidence its hard to survive in this competitive market(once I failed without guidence).
    Let me hope this time i will get the right guidence from u to get job.Anyways u r blog is very great.

  166. Munna said

    Hi Pavan,

    I need your help.

    1. How to resovle the ORA-1555 error while exporting using exp.
    2. On what basis we decide the buffer parameter in exp?

    • Hi Munna,

      1. you will be getting ora-1555 in exp when using consistent=y parameter. the possible solution is to increase either undo tablespace size or undo retention size. if you are using 10g, then oracle will have automatic undo retention by which your datapump will not get these problems.

      2. buffer will be decided on 10*avg row length formula for that table or schema.
      you can get avg row length for a table or schema from dba_tables.
      ex: if you get avg row lengthas 1284, then buffer = 10*1284.
      but in general we will give some value like 50000 or 100000 to it, instead of calculating with formula.

  167. Ravinder Reddy.V said

    hi sir,
    Its really excellent. I learnt many new things in oracle database architecture only.
    Thank u for giving this formation.

  168. pintu said

    Hi Pavan,
    I have been working as DBA for last 4 yrs (mainly as dev dba). So didn’t get chance to work on third party tools for backup and recovery. I’m interested into learning somewhat about unix administration and third party tools like TSN, veritas etc. Please let me know if you can help me with the same.

    Pintu Shah

    • Hi Pintu,

      Thanks for visiting my blog !

      I can’t deny learning third party tools will help you, but more than that you can explore many areas in Oracle DBA itself like RAC, ASM etc. Still even you can go for APPS DBA.

      Personally i had not seen any benefit after doing unix admin etc…but yes i do accept it will give good idea.

      Its just a suggestion and Rest is in your hands…. 🙂

  169. anjibabu said

    hi this is anjibabu
    I completed db2 dba cetification.
    iam completed in computerscience
    any fresher job or db2 dba jobs we can send mail or call

    Thanks & regards
    anjibabu m

  170. Praneeth said

    Hi Pavan,

    Do you take up apps dba training in your institute. Can you please provide me with the course,fee and duration details for the batch. please do specify me the recent date when u can start the batch.


  171. Babasaheb godase said

    Hi sir,
    i have joined one institute as a dba trainer
    not main batch but handling lab demo’s and taking basic sql and unix part…
    so,i’m using ur notes and those are rocking here….

    • nice to hear that….my friend also jumped into this path 🙂
      I wish you All the Very BEST for your new role and want to transform into a full fledged trainer

      Thanks alot…your support made me to frame that notes….

  172. Vidya said

    Hi Pavan,

    This blog is fentastic and it helped me to clear most of the doubts.thanks for guiding us.


  173. Munna said

    Hey Pavan(Father Of Oracle),

    First of all I wanna appriciate for sharing your knowledge.I feel very happy and gianing good knowledge by going through your blog.

    Your parents are very lucky…blessed with a son like you.

    Keep posting the new updates.

    –Munna 🙂

    • Hi Munna,

      I can never be a father of oracle. there are lot many people for that designation. i just know 1% of DBA and still waiting to learn more and more and working hard for that.

      and a small correction in your statement (if don’t mind). anytime i am lucky to be a son to my parents who strive hard for me all these years.

      with all your co-operation and blessings i will continue to post new updates all the time….

      Once again thanks for commenting…. 🙂

  174. Bhaskar ME said

    Dear Pavan,

    You are doing a wonderful job. I was sitting next to you in all the days of our college, but only now i am coming to know about your talents.

    I need more oracle developers in my team. Will let you know more details in personal email.


    Thanks, Bhaskar ME

  175. Babasaheb said

    hi…pavan sir, this is babasaheb from pune…
    ur blog is very nice….
    i start my day with ur blog…
    plz send me updates…preparing for ocp
    really u r rocking…………..

  176. Krishnakant said

    Hi Pavan!

    Nice to see your blog! and also was looking into the comments from the other people. All the best dude….

    Give me your mobile. Will call you…


  177. pawan.v(BNG) said

    Hi Pavan,

    Good. Keep going on…..

    Thanks & Regards,

  178. phaniRam said

    its really good, it will be supportive for junior DBA’s

  179. I am really glad to see that you have become EXPERT in the field of Oracle Databases… great. 🙂

    Please teach me Oracle Databases too, I am Rakesh Soni from Karachi, Pakistan.


    • Hi Rakesh, am not expert in oracle DB. i just got expert status in forums and that too i am still surprised how i got that status. So, i am not certainly in level of teaching and i can share the min knowledge through my blog. Thanks for your kind words….

  180. Samyak Jain said

    Hi Pavan , really nice blog …thanx for ur efforts

  181. Hi Pavan,
    This Blog is really excellent……….No words………No comments…….


  182. Aman.... said

    Hey is it the same Pavan from oracle forums? If yes, teach some thing about Oracle to me also dude and if you are in Hyderabad,spend some busy time to meet me 😉 .


    • Hi Aman Sir, good to see ur comment on my blog.
      yes, i am there in Oracle Forums. but as “Pavan-a DBA”. you can see one more Pavan Kumar in forums…..

      • Hi Pavan,

        I hope that one more “Pavan Kumar N” is me….;-)
        Nice blog…..!!

      • hello sir, first of all thank you for your comments. I have been fond of you since our meeting in oracle forums. Hope i can add your mail id to my gmail, if you accept !

      • Hi Pavan,

        You are an Expert and I stand no-where when compared to you. I am not capable enough to standby on your side as friend… Yep, I will add up to your list, Once I am enough to something… !!


        All the best for your future success and I hope to learn something from you.. !!
        take care..

      • always great people say this. I am really surprised to see how you can be so humble. I am just Expert, but you are Guru !!! Thanks for accepting and i will add your id to my gmail. But don’t worry i will not ping you for asking doubts. Nice to meet you again Sir !

  183. gowtham said

    hi pavan,

    I am gowtham…I read ur blog for the first time and i got a little hope about my career…as i am in the same position of yours(in 2004-2005).I am a 2008 passed out and still in search of a job…I have completed courses in oracle dba and peoplesoft dba.As you are working on oracle can you help me out in anyway with my career…I will thankful to you if you can guide me….


  184. Satish said

    Hi Pavan,

    Nice blog.

    All the dba posts are very much useful.


    Thanks and Regards,

  185. kishore said

    fixed size means
    A portion of the SGA contains general information about the state of the database and the instance, which the background processes need to access; this is called the Fixed SGA. No user data is stored here. The SGA also includes information communicated between processes, such as locking information

  186. kishore said

    happy pongal sir to u n ur parents

  187. kishore said

    hi sir
    ur blog is nice, its very helpful for us. i read ur profile its good. i like that u dedicated this blog to ur parents. say namasate to ur parents.

  188. jagat mohanty said

    I was the 1st student of Pavan who got placed as a DBA in one of the world’s largest MNC within no time.

    This guy having loads of talents.

    • yes. forever i am proud of that 🙂
      but as a fact, at that time, i could not able to spend much time for you people. Its all your hardwork and passion towards DBA which made this possible !

  189. Sagar said

    Hi Pavan,

    Your profile is simply super like your smile.
    The ways you are presenting DBA Class are extraordinary.


  190. Sateesh Kumar.P (DBA) said

    Hi Sir,

    Your Blog is very nice, and the colors u choosen is also nice.
    I read your “About Me” , it is good, but you forgot your school name (T.K.S.V) that’s not good, re-collect your school name, and post it also.


    Change the caption as



    Hi Pavan,
    Good to see your blog.I had looked into some of the posts uploaded by you.They are very useful & nice.What a person you are,thank you for your kindness.Being in a position, and sharing all the knowledge with others ,with latest updates.
    According to my experience and thinking one should not be a egoist or proud regarding subject or knowledge irrespective of their age and position.We should share with one another,so that they would also be upto the levels.
    Hope all of our group people & friends would be benefited with this blog.

    Bang on! & go ahead

Leave a Reply to Babasaheb Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: